Enquanto os imponetes rios da Amazônia são ocupados por usinas hidrelétricas e tornam o Brasil a "Potência Energética do século 21", o impacto dessas obras nas populações locais continua a ser ignorado
Você continua lendo esta matéria na edição 69 da Rolling Stone Brasil, Junho/2012.
While imponetes rivers of the Amazon is occupied by hydroelectric and make Brazil the "Power Energy in the 21st century," the impact of these works for the local population continues to be ignored
On the banks of the Rio Tapajós in Itaituba (PA), a meeting of social groups discusses the impacts of construction of the first of five dams in the region. Felicio Pontes is the word. Federal Prosecutor of Pará and acting in defense of people affected by power plants, he points on the map to Seven Falls waterfall, one of the local power plant construction in the Teles Pires River, forming the Tapajos River.
"It is the breeding ground of fish," Bridges said, trying to prove that the plants in the Amazon are not necessary for the development of the country, listing forms of waste and alternative energy. "I'm bad at math, but just do the math."
Then Kubatiapã (indigenous name of James Munduruku), chief of the people Mundurucu, seeks to tell the nightmare that took place the night before.
"We were walking, a lot of people. Painted. With bow and arrow on their backs toward the west. At a time a plane, was passing close by. And on the road was a car, and they start shooting. The aircraft shrapnel. I had the gun, bow in hand, turned a shotgun 22. The jet began firing at the people in the direction of the weakest. I yelled for everyone to enter the woods. It was like drop of water falling from the sky. There were bullets, bullets. We hid and went to the sacred waterfall. There is a safe place. There is history, "he says. "If you happen to dam the river Tapajos is indigenous history. Will end up with the river. Go away."
According to the information from the prosecutors and fromt he organization 'International Rivers', the federal government plans to build three plants in the Tapajós River, four in Jamanxim (a tributary) and six dams for the Teles Pires, who together as Juruena forms the Tapajos. For the entire basin, which includes the river Apiacás, the plan is to raise a total of 16 dams, which would impact more than ten thousand Indians living on the banks of these rivers.
The nightmare experienced by the indigenous genocide Kubatiapã may not be a fantasy. At the meeting, held in May, this was discussed with the chief leaders of the social movements of the Madeira River, as Iremar Antonio Ferreira, Instituto Vivo Wood and Antonia Melo, coordinator of the Xingu Vivo Movement. The goal is to build an "alliance of the four rivers," involving Madeira, Xingu, Tapajós and Teles Pires. Jesielita Rome Gouveia, coordinator of the social forum movement of BR-163 highway is being paved and will impact the region, was chosen to be the coordinator of the movement Tapajós Vivo.
"Itaituba has grown wildly since the days of mining," complains Jesielita. "Then came the timber, and now projects of roads, waterways, hydroelectric plants and PCHs (Small Hydroelectric) who are second in the PAC, of President Dilma. The government does not know our reality. We are not prepared to have a project of this size in our territory. We are suffering a lot."
Never, in all its ethno-history, has the Amazon gone through a process of transformation so profound - even with the clearing of nearly 20% of plant cover in the last 40 years. All trainers from the south of Amazonas, with few exceptions in plain areas of rivers, dams are serving. The two plants on the Madeira River, San Antonio and Jirau, should go into operation this year or in 2013, while Belo Monte on the Xingu river in Altamira (PA), is projected to begin operating in 2015. In this series, the Tapajos River will be the next to receive a megaobra, which may start already next year, in St. Louis - the construction would have started hiding in early 2012. All part of the plan making the country an "energy superpower of the 21st century," as stated by Mauricio Tolmasquim, president of the Energy Research Company (EPE).
Viewed from above, the rivers of the Amazon Basin resemble veins that drain the high margins to the center and move down a living system - the forest - populated by numerous human and nonhuman populations. Water is drained to the center by about 1,700 rivers, which join together to form the Amazon, the world's largest volume of water and, depending on the calculation also extended. Flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, it turns out 240,000 meters cubic per second of water, one fifth of all freshwater on the planet, up to 150 miles offshore.
The color of the water is a characteristic of each river: the dark green of the Xingu and Tapajós bluish-green, both with crystal clear waters, oppose the Madeira, water turbid and uninviting. These characteristics are determined by erosion, the rivers that descend from the Andes bring more sediment. The edges where they are deposited sediment, become fertile and therefore also more populated areas.
The route from the highlands toward the plain is that the Brazilian government considers to be 70% of "energy reserves" of the country. That is, places where you can take advantage of hydropower and turn it into energy by the turbines of power plants.
Since the construction of the Tucuruí power plant, and because of the great social and ecological impacts in the area, were not made new large power plants in the Amazon. The resumption of the project for exploitation of energy reserves Amazon occurred during the first term of former President Lula and was captained by Rousseff, then Minister of Mines and Energy. It is very likely that the government's plan is criticized and protests this month, during the world meeting Rio +20. Especially after that Dilma publicly dismissed the numerous criticisms of the plants: "No one of these also accepts a conference, I apologize, discuss fantasy. She has no room for fantasy. I'm not talking about utopia, this may have, I'm talking about fantasy, "said the president.
An even greater number of megawatts is beyond borders, in the Andes, to which Brazil plans to expand its energy production mechanism. There are more than 150 hydroelectric projects to be built in the region over the next 20 years, according to a study by researchers Matt Finer and Clinton Jenkins. The plants should occupy five of the six trainers Andean Amazon River and Brazil will be a major investor in these projects. The Peruvians, however, Dilma criticized for wanting to build five hydroelectric dams in the country (in negotiation) in order to produce energy for Brazil.
According to the environmentalist Bruce Barbbit, in an article published in the Peruvian newspaper El Comercio, the Brazilian government projects displace five thousand people in the river Inambari and would require the displacement of ten thousand Indians ashaninkas. Together, the plants would cause impacts on 1.5 million hectares of forest. This would occur in the "environmental and cultural heart of the Peruvian Amazon, close to three protected areas: Parque Nacional del Manu National Park Bahuaja Sonene and Alto Purus National Park." One of the plants also reach the National Shrine Megantoni, Machiguenga Indians of the sacred area and close at least two uncontacted tribes.
Are you still reading this material in 69 edition of Rolling Stone Brazil, June/2012.