Thursday, 7 August 2014

Gaza Diaries by Issam Sammour

19 July 2014 – Part 1

My brother Hamada, who is 22 years old, came to me and said, 'man, it's Friday, shall we go to Friday prayer at the mosque?' I was shocked and felt strange. How did I forget this day? I said to him, 'but you see the number of warplanes, you hear the heavy shells?' He smiled and said, 'man, don't be scared, it's life. If they hit us with a missile attack we die together.' I had mixed feelings about this. I hesitated wondering if it's good a time to move or not. I said to myself: 'be brave man!' I changed my clothes and we moved on together talking about the war, the situation and when it's going to be over. Imagine that there was no one was in the streets. This made me more worried. The distance between my home and the mosque is about 7 minutes walking distance. At every single moment I expected that an airstrike would kill us, but finally we arrived safely

We felt comforted as we did the prayer and went back to our home. There is no electricity at home, which is also a big nightmare for us. We can't move and it's too long a time without electricity. I told my brother, ‘we need to know what's happening. I hear bombings and ambulance sirens heading everywhere, but can't determine the places under fire.’ Meanwhile with my eyes closed, my memory was working as I saw the four children that were killed playing football at Gaza beach. They were from the Abu Baker family, all boys between 8 - 10 years old. I saw their bodies torn into small pieces.

They were killed in front of the cameras of the international media. In the news they also covered that the Israeli navy was also shelling journalists near the beach. In places you hear a big explosions followed by black smoke, children disappear on the beach, people run to the places where children were playing but there were no children. They were killed into small parts distributed everywhere in the area. Local people and journalists at the beach were screaming and crying, starting to collect the parts of their bodies. I opened my eyes, my heart had sunk. All of a sudden my youngest brother said in a loud voice that finally the power was on again. I felt l better and started to check the messages on the internet and saw the news. I started to post news and was talking to my friend asking about their safety, if anyone got killed or injured, I tweeted that a home was hit in middle area and 1 person was killed. I found out that person was one of our relatives!

19 July 2014 – Part 2

It was Ramadan. We had broken our fast while missiles were falling nearby with lights and explosions. I received a call from a friend of mine who told me that one of my mother’s relatives was killed in an Israeli airstrike. Now the mission is impossible - how do I inform her about the death of her relative? I was worried so much that I decided to inform her after discussing it with my two brothers. The time was 9 pm and bombings were taking place everywhere. We were scared to tell her about what had happened.  I know my mother, she would be mad if she knew.

Here is the thing that was not expected: my youngest brother came to my mother and said, ‘Mama Mohammed was killed in Israeli attack.’ She started screaming and crying searching for her phone to try to contact anyone to confirm the news. She talked to my aunt who said that it was true. My mother’s tears were like drops of rain on her face. I went beside her and told her: ‘Mama please pray for him. Stay strong.’ At 6 am she told me to go to the funeral with her eyes full of sadness. She asked me to put some food out for the birds on the roof. The problem was how to get up on the roof with Israeli warplanes are hovering above, scanning every single movement on the ground? 30 minutes later there was heavy shelling. Israeli forces invaded east of Khanyouins. I heard bombings that never stopped. My brother turned on the radio on his mobile and we learned that 1 person had been killed and several were injured. From my big family people gathered at the center of our family home not knowing what to do. Ambulances can't evacuate the injured due to the heavy amount of injuries near my house. Women and children were crying. No one knew if they would be killed. Everybody was in a bad mood. There was sadness all around us. Death was all around us too!

23 July 2014

It was a massive explosion. I put my fingers in my ears. My house was shaking.  There were three of us: my father, my friend and myself. Black smoke was rising, shells fell above our home; rubble. We thought it was so close and nearby to us, my heart was pounding. I reached for my phone trying to find out what's happened. I called my relative who lives near the explosion. He informed me that he didn’t know and couldn’t find out because of the lack of electricity. It's been off for the past 22 hours. I heard chaos all around - women and men screaming ‘Allah Akbar!’

My brothers turned on their radio phones to listen to the news. I could heard ambulance sirens so loud and people’s voices. I was able to recognize that people that had been injured at the targeted location. Two ambulances came to evacuate bodies of my relatives that had been killed in the airstrike while they sat in their garden. It was a very hard moment for us to know that one of our friend's, beloved one lost his/her life as non-stop airstrikes on the Gaza strip has gone on for more than two weeks. We can’t relax or sleep - all the time thinking about a truce that can end the madness. I have mixed feelings:  fear, scared, panic, optimism.

Our futures are still full of black smoke. There was a funeral that took place when we brought the bodies of our martyrs there. We prayed the AlJannaza prayer at the mosque. I saw red faces and angry eyes. I saw the tears of grown men. It was a sad moment while artillery and shelling randomly resumed.  My youngest brother said to me, ‘Issam, I count the seconds and minutes and I am scared that they will kill me at any time. I'm waiting to be murdered. I know it's sad to say this to you but they target everybody and no one safe.’ I got home and calmed him down, so he trusted me when I said to him, ‘it will pass soon and never lose hope.’

30 July 2014

In Gaza you can spend the whole day counting the deaths and injuries following the news of the humanitarian truce or the ceasefire agreement. Last night was horrible. The intensive bombardment killed around 100 people. By mid-day warplanes dropped leaflets warning residents in the area east of Khan Youins to evacuate the main street which is called Salah El Dein. Our family was very worried and trying to figure out where to go. With angry eyes full of tears my mother said, ‘Issam, I will not move from our house until my last breath!’ I went to my father to ask him to convince her to leave, because we will be bombed. I know Israeli artillery shelling is random and people can be easily murdered. My mother still insisted with a big NO! I talked to my aunt to see if she could help and make my mother understand what the results of her decision could be.  My father talked to me and told me clearly: ‘how can we move from one unsafe place to another unsafe place? At least if we die, we can die at our house and not in the streets’ - you know airstrikes hit home, hospitals, UNRWA shelters, and mosques.

So we all agreed to stay home until we received news about a ceasefire agreement. Around 10pm we went to sleep; not actually to sleep, just to rest a little. The bombings to me are waves of horror! That night the bombing party began and my brother told me that the warplanes in the sky looked like the stars. Everywhere there were warplanes hovering. Near the borders the artillery shelling was nonstop, in the darkness. We could only hear the sounds of the bombs, sounds of the warplanes, and ambulance sirens. Around 5 am we were exhausted and wanted the day to come. We finally decided to not stay at our house.

My aunt went to prepare tea for us before leaving when things went dramatically deteriorated because an airstrike hit a building very close to us and shells fell on our home. Black smoke was rising quickly. We ran to grab our bags and moved outside, shouting and screaming. In that moment we woke everybody up and left, all initially going in different directions.  I did, however, manage to control everybody. We were lucky. There were two cars for us. One was my brother’s car another was a friend’s.  Around 22 members of my family got into two cars, which were really only big enough for a few people, but in that horrible moment you don't think about this silly matter.  It's important that you run and escape from what would definite death. We drove to the Khanyouins refugee camp where my friend lives. I had phoned him to search for an apartment for us. He was trying to find one but it was an impossible mission due to the huge numbers of people of the eastern area where people that were registered as displaced. People were sleeping in the streets, on cardboard and nylon. What a miserable life. My friend was tired and decided to host a small group of us at his home.

We divided into 5 groups. Each group went to a different corner of the city. We went to the market to buy some bread and some canned goods. There were long lines of the displaced in center of the city. The crowds were in the thousands lying, walking, shopping. There were not enough supplies available; there was especially very little water. I stood for 2 hrs in the hot sun to bring back some bread for my family. Each hour one of my brothers would call me and ask how I was. How was everything and to please let them know if I had any news about a ceasefire. We were all tired and exhausted! 

This is only a glimpse of what my life is like in Gaza right now.


Bloggers Note:

All photos were taken by Issam Sammour from various locations in Khanyounis and Khuzza.

If anyone is interested in reposting this, please go a head. These should be distributed far and wide so that people can see what someone like Issam felt like during the Israeli attacks on Gaza. It must have been terrifying to say the least. But if you do repost, please make sure to credit Issam Sammour. No need to credit this blog. It's not my story.

To contact Issam, you can e-mail him at You can also find him on Twitter at @IssamSammour.

Wednesday, 1 January 2014

PF faz buscas em aldeias diante de silêncio de #índios #tenharim (#Brasil) / Federal Police continue scan within #Tenharim #Indigenous Lands (#Brazil)

Postado originalmente por Amazonia Real em
Originally posted by Amazonia Real at

Trazido a minha atenção por @PersonalEscrito via Twitter
Brought to my attention by @PersonalEscrito via Twitter

Índios tenharim na estrada que corta reserva no AM (Foto: Acervo Funai)Índios tenharim na estrada que corta reserva no AM (Foto: Acervo Funai) / Tenharim Indians on the road that cuts through the reservation AM (Photo: Collection Funai)
A Polícia Federal continua fazendo uma varredura dentro da Terra Indígena Tenharim-Marmelos, no sul do Amazonas, em busca dos três homens desaparecidos há 16 dias. Até o momento, a operação, que conta com o apoio da Força Nacional de Segurança e do Exército, não teve sucesso.

In search of three men that have been missing for the past 16 days, the Federal Police continues to conduct a scan within the Indigenous territory of the Tenharim-Marmelos, south of the Amazon. So far, the operation, which has the support of the National Security Force and the Army, was not successful.

As famílias dos desaparecidos estão apreensivas com a falta de notícias da polícia e com boatos que circulam nas redes sociais dando conta de que os corpos teriam sido encontrados. Os índios tenharim prometeram não mais ajudar nas buscas e permanecem em silêncio.

The families of the missing are apprehensive about the lack of news from the police and due to the rumors circulating on social networks stating that the bodies were found. The Tenharim Indians promised not help in searches and remain silent.

O delegado Alexandre Alves, que coordena a operação de buscas, deu prazo até nesta quinta-feira (2), para apontar o paradeiro de Stef Pinheiro de Souza, Luciano Ferreira Freire e Aldeney Ribeiro Salvador. Segundo as famílias, eles foram sequestrados e mortos pelos índios como vingança pela morte do cacique Ivan Tenharim. Os índios, porém, negam que são os responsáveis pelo desaparecimento.

The delegate Alexandre Alves, who coordinates the search operation, has set a deadline of Thursday (2), pointing to the whereabouts of Stef Pinheiro de Souza, Luciano Ferreira Ribeiro Freire and Aldeney Salvador. According to the families, they were kidnapped and killed by the Indians in revenge for the death of the chief Ivan Tenharim. The Indians, however, deny that they are responsible for the disappearance.

As buscas das forças federais acontecem dentro de uma área de 497,5 mil hectares, cerca de floresta e de difícil acesso, tendo como base o quilômetro 137 da rodovia BR 230, na Transamazônica, em Manicoré (333 quilômetros de Manaus).

Searches by the federal forces have taken place within an area of 497 500 hectares, im a forested area that is difficult to access, and is based 137 km from the BR 230 highway, the Transamazonian highway in Manipur (333 km from Manaus).

Em Humaitá (a 675 quilômetros de Manaus), mais de 200 soldados da Polícia Militar do Amazonas fazem a segurança da população (45.954 pessoas, segundo o IBGE).

In Humaita (675 kilometers from Manaus), more than 200 officers of the Military Police of the Amazon make the safety of the population (45,954 people, according to IBGE).

Dentro da reserva, os índios estão sendo abordados por agentes da Polícia Federal, relatou nesta quarta-feira (01) ao portal Amazônia Real o líder indígena Ivanildo Tenharim, 34, que é também titular da Secretaria Municipal de Povos Indígenas da Prefeitura de Humaitá. Ele está na aldeia Marmelos, onde vivem 400 índios, no quilômetro 123 da BR- 230 (Transamazônica). Ivanildo também disse ao portal que a alimentação dos indígenas, que estão orientados a não sair da aldeia, começa a diminuir. Casos de doenças aumentaram.

Within the reserve, the Indians are being approached by federal police which was reported on Wednesday (01) by the Amazon indigenous leader Ivanildo Tenharim, 34, who is also the proprietor of the Municipal Prefecture of Indigenous Peoples Humaita. He is located in the Marmelos village where 400 Indians live 123 km from the BR-230 (Transamazônica). Ivanildo also told the website that the food supply of the Indians, who are instructed not to leave the village, has begun to go down. The incidence of diseases has increased.

“Acho que os policiais federais querem aproveitar um momento de fraqueza para pressionar. Quando encontram um índio vão logo perguntando: “onde está o corpo? entrega logo”. Mas como não sabemos de nada, não respondemos”, afirmou Ivanildo, em declaração dada por um telefônico público instalado na aldeia.

"I think the federal police want to enjoy a moment of weakness in front of the press. When they find an Indian they ask, "Where's the body? Delivery/return it soon. "But as we know nothing, we do not respond, " said Ivanildo in a statement given via a public telephone which is located in the village.

Segundo a Polícia Federal, caciques tenharim haviam prometido ajudar nas investigações, depois que um grupo de 126 índios foi levado de volta às aldeias, escoltados, e não saíram mais da reserva. Eles estavam refugiados num quartel do Exército desde o dia 25, depois que manifestantes os ameaçaram de morte, durante uma revolta na cidade de Humaitá.

According to the Federal Police, the Tenharim chiefs had promised to help in the investigations, after a group of 126 Indians was taken back to the villages, escorted, and not left over booking. They were refugees in army barracks since 25, after protesters threatened with death during a riot in the city of Humaita.

Silêncio / Silence

Conforme Ivanildo Tenharim, os indígenas que vivem nas aldeias não querem mais “tocar no assunto” dos homens desaparecidos. Segundo ele, antes dos violentos protestos da semana passada, havia a disposição dos tenharim em ajudar nas buscas, mas o interesse acabou.

As Ivanildo Tenharim, the indigenous people living in the villages no longer want to "raise the issue" of the missing men. According to him, before the violent protests last week, there was willingness of Tenharim residents to help in the search, but interest decreased.

“A comunidade tinha decidido que iria ajudar com um mutirão nas aldeias para as buscas. Mas depois de toda aquela humilhação que causou muito sofrimento, com os parentes refugiados no quartel, pessoas de fora entrando nas aldeias e fazendo aquela bagunça toda, ninguém está mais querendo ajudar”, disse ao Amazônia Real.

"The community had decided it would help with a campaign in the villages for searches. But after all that humiliation that caused much suffering, with relatives in the refugee barracks, outsiders entering the villages and making the whole mess, no one else is willing to help," said Amazonia Real.

Ivanildo Tenharim contou que uma assembleia está prevista para acontecer no próximo dia 10 para definir como os índios vão se posicionar sobre o assunto.

Ivanildo Tenharim stated that a meeting was scheduled to take place on 10th to define the position of the Indians on the matter.

Nascido na aldeia Marmelos, Ivanildo Tenharim morava na aldeia Bela Vista até se transferir para Humaitá. Para ele, a reação violenta contra os indígenas dos últimos dias foi resultado de uma articulação dos madeireiros e fazendeiros.

Born in the village of Marmelos, Ivanildo Tenharim lived in the village Bela Vista until he moved to Humaita. For him, the backlash against the Indians in recent days was the result of of actions by loggers and farmers.

“Existem muitos madeireiros que têm raiva da gente porque eles não podem invadir a reserva para tirar madeira. Tempos atrás, com as operações da Funai e de outros órgãos, eles tiveram carros e tratores apreendidos e ficaram com mais raiva. O que eles fizeram foi aproveitar o momento para se unirem contra nós, se articulando com a população. Foram eles que bancaram o protesto de sexta-feira, quando invadiram as aldeias”, disse.

"There are many who are loggers who are angry at the people because they can not invade the reservation to take wood. Long ago, due to operations by Funai and other organizations, their cars and tractors were seized and they were even angrier. What they did was to use the moment to unite against us. It was they who bancaram (could not translate this word) at the protest on Friday, when they invaded the villages, "he said.

Um dos alvos dos protestos da semana passada, a cobrança do pedágio na BR-230 (Transamazônica) pelos indígenas é defendida por Ivanildo Tenharim.

One of the targets of protests last week was the Indigneous owned toll collection buidling on BR-230 (Transamazônica).
“A gente não chama de pedágio, mas uma compensação. É uma forma de os indígenas terem um retorno financeiro porque nossa terra foi cortada por uma estrada ilegal que só nos trouxe impactos negativos. Muitos índios ficaram doentes e outros morreram. Nossa população diminuiu. Com a estrada, aumentou a migração e muita gente de fora veio para cá. Enquanto a União não oferecer uma alternativa de sustentabilidade, queremos continuar com essa cobrança”, disse.

"We do not call it a toll but compensation. It is a form that the indigenous peoples can receive payback because our land was cut by an illegal road that brought us only negative impacts. Many Indians became sick and some died. Our population has decreased. The road was a means for increased migration and many outsiders came here. While the Union does not offer an alternative means of sustainability, we want to continue with this charge, "he said.

Conforme Ivanildo, a cobrança do pedágio foi suspensa após acordo feito com a Polícia Federal, mas ela será retomada com o fim das buscas.

According to Ivanildo, the toll collection was suspended after an agreement was reached with the Federal Police, but it resumed with the order of the searches.

Comida escassa / Food scarcity

Ivanildo Tenharim afirmou que a demora e a espera pelo fim das buscas também estão impactando a vida dos indígenas. Ele disse que, como tem diminuído a caça dentro da reserva e os índios compram gêneros alimentícios em Humaitá, os suprimentos estão ficando escassos na aldeias. No total, vivem na terra indígena 1.200 tenharim.

Ivanildo Tenharim said that the delay and the wait for the end of the searches are also impacting the lives of indigenous peoples. He said that as hunting had decreased within the reserve and the Indians had to buy groceries in Humaita as supplies were becoming scarce in the villages. In total, 1,200 live within indigenous land of the Tenharim.

“Os índios tinham ido na cidade comprar alguns alimentos. Eles estavam no caminhão que foi incendiado e tudo se perdeu. Como os homens não querem se afastar muito das aldeias para caçar  pelo receio de novos ataques, a comida está acabando”, disse Ivanildo Tenharim.

"The Indians had gone to the city to buy some food. They were in the truck that was burned and everything was lost. As men do not want to stray too far from the villages to hunt for fear of further attacks, the food is running out, "said Ivanildo Tenharim.

De acordo com o líder indígena dos tenharim, há também muitos casos de crianças doentes, sobretudo de gripe. Por isso, os índios querem que a Funai (Fundação Nacional de Saúde) articule com a Secretaria Especial de Saúde Indígena (Sesai) e com o Exército o envio de profissionais de saúde às aldeias.

According to the indigenous leader of Tenharim, there are also many cases of sick children, especially some sick with influenza. So the Indians want Funai (National Health Foundation) to communicate with the Special Indigenous Health (Swai) and the Army to send health workers to the villages.

Durante a revolta em Humaitá foram destruídos com fogo o prédio do polo-base de saúde da Funasa (Fundação Nacional de Saúde), o prédio da Funai, 16 veículos e embarcações.

During the revolt in Humaita , buildings of the polo-based saude da Funasa were destroyed with fire the building polo-based saúde da Funasa (Fundação Nacional de Saúde), a building of Funai, and 16 vehicles and boats were also destroyed.

Nesta terça-feira (31) um documento escrito pelas lideranças indígenas foi enviado à Presidência da Funai , em Brasília, pedindo providências para a situação. No documento, além do pedido por comida e atendimento à saúde, os tenharim querem que a Funai crie um grupo de trabalho para a reconstrução da sua sede em Humaitá. Também pedem “suporte” para o retorno com segurança de 20 indígenas tenharim que vivem na cidade, trabalhando como funcionários da Prefeitura de Humaitá, da Funai e da Sesai.

On Tuesday (31) a document written by indigenous leaders was sent to the President of FUNAI in Brasilia, asking for action in regard to this situation. In the paper, besides the request for food and health care, the Tenharim requested for Funai to create a working group to rebuild its headquarters in Humaita. They also asked for "support" to safely return 20 Tenharim indigenous people living in the city, working as employees of the Municipality of Humaita Funai and SESA.

Segundo Ivanildo, as aldeias Tenharim-Marmelos estão protegidas atualmente desde que policiais da Força Nacional de Segurança, Polícia Federal e Militar foram enviados para a reserva.

According to Ivanildo, the villages of Tenharim-Marmelos are currently protected by officers of the National Security Force. Federal Police and Military were sent to the reserve.

“Estamos dando um tempo aqui porque a situação continua tensa em Humaitá. Mas e depois, como vamos fazer, como vamos sair? Tem muitos jovens tenharim que fazem faculdade. Há alunos do ensino fundamental e médio. Os índios também trabalham com extrativismo e coleta de produtos como açaí e comercializam os produtos. Não podemos ficar parados aqui”, disse.

"We're taking a break here because the situation remains tense in Humaita. But then, as we do, how we get out? We have many young Tenharim people who go to college. There are students from elementary and high school. The Indians also work with extraction and collection of products like acai and sell products. We can not just sit here, "he said.

Mistério / Mystery

Segundo as investigações da Polícia Federal, os amigos Stef Pinheiro de Souza, 43, professor, Luciano da Conceição Ferreira Freire, comerciante, partiram de Humaitá em um carro Gol por volta das 6h, do dia 16 de dezembro. No porto da cidade, eles derem carona ao gerente da Eletrobrás Amazonas Energia, Aldeney Ribeiro Salvador.

According to the Federal Police investigations, friends Stef Pinheiro de Souza, 43, teacher, Luciano da Conceição Ferreira Freire, dealer, Humaita departed on a goal by car around 6 am, the 16th of December. In the port city, they gave a ride to the manager of Eletrobras Amazonas Energia, Aldeney Ribeiro Salvador.

Os três deveriam viajar até o quilômetro 180 da BR 230 para chegar ao distrito de Santo Antônio do Matupi, em Manicoré, por volta das 9h. É lá que trabalha Salvador. Souza e Freire seguiriam para Apuí em viagem de mais cem quilômetros. Mas, desapareceram sem deixar pistas entre um trecho da estrada que fica dentro da Terra Indígena Tenharim. No percurso, os índios tenharim e jiahiu cobram pedágio considerado ilegal.

The three were to travel to the kilometer 180 BR 230 to reach the district of Santo Antônio do Matupi in Manipur, around 9 am. Is there working Salvador. Souza and Freire followed to Apuí to travel more than a hundred kilometers. But, they disappeared without a trace from a stretch of road that is within the Indigenous territory of the Tenharim. Along the way, the Indians of Tenharim and Jiahiu charged a toll that is considered illegal.

Conforme as investigações, quatro policiais militares, que estavam à paisana, viram índios tenharim empurrando o carro Gol por voltas das 10h na região da aldeia Tabocal, que fica no quilômetro 137 da Transamazônica. A Polícia Militar diz que os soldados não estranharam a situação envolvendo os índios porque eles também são proprietários de veículos.

During the investigations, four military officers, who were in plainclothes, saw Tenharim Indians pushing a car at 10 am in a village in the Tabocal region, which is located at 137 kilometer from the Transamazônica. The Military Police says that the soldiers did not consider the situation strange as the Indians were are also vehicle's owners.

Pressão do agronegócio / Pressure from agribusiness

Em entrevista ao Amazônia Real, o jornalista e antropólogo Fernando Sebastião, que trabalha com os tenharim há mais de 10 anos, acha que articuladores dos atos de violência ocorridos em Humaitá são principalmente madeireiros e políticos da região que viram no drama verdadeiro das famílias dos desaparecidos uma oportunidade para cuidar de seus interesses econômicos e políticos.

In an interview with Real Amazon, journalist and anthropologist Fernando Sebastian, who worked with the Tenharim for over 10 years, he thought the violence which occurred in Humaita was due to mostly loggers and local politicians who saw the real drama of the families of the missing as an opportunity to take care of their economic and political interests.

Conforme Fernando, a relação dos tenharim sempre foi boa com os moradores de Humaitá, bem como com os pequenos agricultores, que vivem às margens da Transamazônica, com quem se identificam pelo modo de vida, baseado na agricultura de pequena escala, na pesca e na caça.  A relação com os migrantes que chegaram à região vindos do sul do país na década de 70 também é tranquila. O mesmo não se pode dizer das pessoas que chegaram na onda migratória com a nova frente de expansão vinda de Rondônia há quase dez anos.

According to Fernando, the relationship of Tenharim always been good with the residents of Humaita as well as with the small farmers living along the Transamazônica, who identify themselves by way of life, based on small-scale agriculture, fishing and hunting. The relationship with the migrants who arrived in the region come from the south in the 70's was also quiet. The same can not be said of the people who came in with the new migratory wave front resulting from the expansion of the Rondônia almost ten years ago.

“Isso alterou um pouco essa relação por conta da mudança no perfil desses migrantes. Ao contrário dos que vieram na primeira onda, não se trata de pequenos produtores, mas sim de latifundiários e pecuaristas, bastante resistente aos contatos com os indígenas da região e inseridos no esquema do agronegócio, que enxergam os índios como um entrave para o que eles julgam ser desenvolvimento”, comentou.

"That relationship due to the change in the profile of these migrants. Unlike those who came in the first wave, they are not small farmers, but the landowners and ranchers, very resistant to contact with the indigenous people of the region and incorporated into the scheme of agribusiness. They see the Indians as an obstacle to what they deem to be development, "he commented.